How to Test Hollow Fiber Membrane? A Comprehensive Guide

Ultrafiltration systems, especially those utilizing hollow fiber membranes, are a cornerstone of many water treatment solutions. To ensure optimum performance and longevity of these membranes, it’s crucial to test their integrity periodically. This article discusses the methods for conducting these tests, their reasons, and the precautions to take.

How to Test Hollow Fiber Membrane?

Why Test Hollow Fiber Membranes?

  1. Declining Product Water Quality: Despite consistent influent water quality, if product water quality drops, it could be a sign of membrane issues.
  2. Deteriorating Influent Water Quality: Without added pretreatment processes, a decline in influent water quality can overburden the ultrafiltration membrane, causing irregularities.
  3. Routine Integrity Checks: Over time, membranes naturally degrade. Periodic tests ensure they remain in top condition.

How to Test Hollow Fiber Membrane?

1. Membrane Shell Integrity Testing

Observational Check

Begin by examining the membrane shell. Look for:

  • Visible damages
  • Cracks on the membrane shell
  • The presence of any holes
  • Consistency in thickness

Auditory Assessment

Using a professional stethoscope, listen for any abnormalities in the membrane element. This step can provide early indications of potential issues.

Bubble Test

The bubble method is a reliable test for hollow fiber membrane modules. Here’s how you do it:

  • Pass a liquid through one side of the membrane.
  • Simultaneously, introduce air from the opposite side
  • Monitor for a pressure drop on the gas side and the appearance of continuous bubbles on the liquid side
Bubble Test

2. Membrane Integrity Detection

Initial Steps

Start by:

  1. Opening the system’s concentrated water valve
  2. Injecting air from the water production main pipe
  3. Draining the concentrated water within the ultrafiltration membrane element

Pressure Decay Monitoring

Watch the air pressure for a 5-minute duration. A pressure decay exceeding 0.35 bar/5min (5psi/5min) suggests a broken filament in the membrane.

Pressure Decay Monitoring

Stethoscope Verification

A secondary auditory check with a stethoscope can further pinpoint issues. Listen for bubble sounds in each membrane module. Mark any abnormalities.

Post-test Procedures

After your tests:

  1. Perform air scrubbing for about a minute
  2. Drain the sewage from the membrane
  3. Release the pressure by opening the product water discharge valve

Repair and Reinstallation

If you identify any broken filaments, attempt repairs if feasible. Upon completing repairs, reinstall the membrane assembly and gradually restart the system. Reconfirm the integrity of the hollow fiber membrane element before resuming full operations.

Precautions to Consider

  1. Transparent Elbow Design: Consider incorporating transparent elbows for better integrity testing when designing the ultrafiltration system.
  2. Alternative Testing Methods: Besides the air bubble method, there are other approaches for integrity testing based on specific membrane usage.
  3. Shutdown During Testing: Always shut down the ultrafiltration membrane element being tested. Do not attempt tests while the system is running.


To maintain water quality and syste­m efficiency, it is essential to test the inte­grity of hollow fiber membranes regularly. A compre­hensive assessment can be achieved by combining obse­rvational, acoustic, and pressure tests. It is important to follow proper precautions to ensure accurate results. By utilizing these me­thods, you can effectively manage the lifecycle of your ultrafiltration me­mbranes and ensure consistent performance.


Why is it important to test the hollow fiber membrane?

Regular testing ensures efficient membrane operation, maintains water quality, and prolongs the system’s lifespan.

How often should I test the hollow fiber membrane?

It would be best to determine the testing frequency depending on usage, influent water quality, and specific system recommendations. However, we advise conducting routine checks at regular intervals.

What signs indicate the need for membrane testing?

Declining water quality, increasing influent load, and degrading performance strongly indicate a need for action.

Can I test the membrane while the system is running?

No, the membrane needs to be shut down before initiating any tests.

A stethoscope offers an auditory method for detecting abnormalities in the membrane element, adding a layer to the assessment.

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